Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, is located in the heart of the country’s vast territory which occupies an area of 1565000 square kilometers which is roughly the size of Western Europe. The name Ulaanbaatar means « the Red Hero » in Mongolian language and it was given in honor of Mongolia’s revolution of 1921. Ulaanbaatar is the home to more than one-third of the country’s population of 2.8 million. The city sits in a basin surrounded by four mountains: Bogd Khan, SonginoKhairkhan, Chingeltei and Bayanzurkh which are a part of the beautiful Khan Khentii mountain range. Besides being the cultural, industrial, and financial heart of the country, Ulaanbaatar serves as the symbol of democratic freedom and independence. It was first established in 1635 for the first Bogd King of Mongolia UndurGegeenZanabazar.
Major attractions in Ulaanbaatar:
Sukhbaatar square is the central square of the city where the Zero point of all roads in Mongolia start. The square is named after the leader of Mongolia’s 1921 revolution SukhbaatarDamdin. Surrounded by important official places such as the Parliament House, Opera and Ballet Theatres, City Council, Stock Exchange and many other impressive buildings, Sukhbaatarsquare is considered as the very center of the city. This is the place where many Mongolians come to relax, sometimes see a live concert. You can see various kinds ceremonies, events and even see wedding couples, students celebrating their commencement in Sukhbaatar square.
Zaisan Memorial Hill - located in the south side of Ulaanbaatar City, right between the Tuul River and the Bogd Khan Mountain presents the best view of the city and surrounding hills. There are a 15 m high golden-yellow standing statue of Buddha besides the hill and a memorial statue on the top of the hill honoring soviet soldiers who fought against Japanese invaders in the territory of Mongolia and Manchuria in 1939 - 1945.
Natural History Museum- founded in 1924 as the National Central Museum, is one of the oldest museums in Mongolia. The museum has departments of Geography, Geology, Flora and Fauna, and Paleontology, each displaying amazingly interesting exhibits on historical development of plants, animals and people in the period of 4.7 milliard years. It shows. Among the most impressive exhibits are two complete dinosaur skeletons. One is the 15 m high skeleton of a Tarbosaurus, and the second is the 8 m high Saurolophus skeleton. These skeletons were found in the Gobi Desert . The meteorites, the camel gallery and the ornithological gallery shown in the Geology are also worth visiting. The tour in the museum takes about 1.5-2 hours.
National Museum of Mongolian History- sometimes referred to by its previous name - “the Revolutionary Museum”– was founded in 1924. It houses more than 40,000 archaeological, historical, and ethnographic exhibits showing Mongolian history and culture from the dawn of the humanity to present day. The rare and esteemed displayed items include the remains from the Hunnu period (the first Mongolia state) of 3RD B.C. to 1ST A.D. There are also intriguing signs of human remnants from the early stone and bronze ages. A visit to the museum can give you a clear insight into the various development stages of Mongolia, starting from early years to modern times. The museum exhibits a rich collection of over 150 000 photos each telling a unique story.
Zanabazar’s Fine Arts Museum is the most praised museum by people interested in fine arts. The museum is named after the first BogdKhaan and the religious leader of Mongolia, Zanabazar. Its collection shows art from Neolithic times through to the Turkic period, masks and paintings of the 13th century Mongol Khaans to early 20th century art. The museum is famous for the fact that it houses the finest artworks created by the best craftsmen throughout the history of Mongolia. Sitting figures of Buddha, including the White and Green Taras, sculpted in bronze by Zanabazar; a silver, gold and pearl mandala; traditional Mongol zurag paintings by famous Mongolian artists; a section on applique wall hangings and items of Mongolian ritual dances are the most praised highlights.
BogdKhaan Winter Palace Museum, built in 1942, is among the first museums in Mongolia. It is the only remaining palace of four residences where the 8th BogdKhaan, the last Mongolian ruler, resided. This palace now displays the collection of personal belongings of the last king and his wife, as well as a wide variety of priceless religious and cultural art works ranging from statues of gods, tankas, and papier-mache many of which are produced by the first BogdKhaan. The museum also exhibits various gifts presented by kings and dignitaries of other countries. The king’s extraordinary collection of stuffed animals, Ger (Mongolian traditional dwelling) lined with the skins of 150 snow leopards, silver saddle and carriage are among the invaluable exhibits.